Opening - by Marlin Detweiler
Feature Article—Christopher Columbus and the Flat-Earth Myth by Gary DeMar
Educational Helps – by Laurie Detweiler
Christians are frequently put in a bad light through historical revisionism. Our friend, Gary Demar of American Vision, seeks to set the record straight with his research and knowledge from primary sources in this month’s Feature Article. As classical Christian educators we routinely seek out primary sources to dispel myths and to learn about things directly rather than from a source that writes “about” what someone did or said. Enjoy.
Christopher Columbus and the Flat-Earth Myth
Each October, Christopher Columbus is hammered for his voyages of exploitation of native peoples, and Christians are ridiculed for once opposing the forward-thinking Columbus and his rejection of the flat earth mythology held by the medieval church. Is any of it true? I’ll leave the question of exploitation to be answered by others, but the flat earth issue is easily answered. In the eleven-volume Our Wonder World, first published in 1914, the editors offered the following undocumented claims: “All the ancient peoples thought the earth was flat, or, if not perfectly flat, a great slightly curving surface,” and “Columbus was trying to convince people that the earth was round.”
Even the Encyclopedia Britannica perpetuated the myth of a round-earth solution for Columbus’s voyages as late as 1961: “Before Columbus proved the world was round, people thought the horizon marked its edge. Today we know better.” The people knew better in Columbus’s day. A 1983 textbook for fifth-graders reported that Columbus “felt he would eventually reach the Indies in the East. Many Europeans still believed that the world was flat. Columbus, they thought, would fall off the earth.” A 1982 text for eighth-graders said that Europeans “believed . . . that a ship could sail out to sea just so far before it fell off the edge of the sea. . . . The people of Europe a thousand years ago knew little about the world.”
Prominent scholars like John D. Bernal (1901–1971), in his four-volume Science in History (1954), and Daniel J. Boorstin (1914–2004), prize-winning author and Librarian of Congress from 1975 to 1987, propagated the myth without any historical substantiation. Boorstin spills a great deal of ink inventing a history of flat-earth beliefs that he traces to an obscure sixth-century monk, Cosmas Indicopleustes, who, according to medieval scholar Jeffrey Russell, “had no followers whatever: his works were ignored or dismissed with derision throughout the Middle Ages.”
Earlier attempts to present Columbus as a scientific iconoclast can be found in two standard nineteenth-century anti-Christian works pitting science against religion. John William Draper claims that Christians had no concern for scientific discovery. Instead, “they originated in commercial rivalries, and the question of the shape of the earth was finally settled by three sailors, Columbus, De Gama, and, above all, by Ferdinand Magellan.” While Columbus and other informed sailors who regularly sailed beyond the horizon believed in “the globular figure of the earth,” such an idea was, “as might be expected . . . received with disfavor by theologians.” A similar argument appears in Andrew D. White’s A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. The “shape of the earth” was not in question in Columbus’s day. “Columbus, like all educated people of his time, knew that the world was round. . . .”
The Flat-Earth Culprit
How and why did the flat-earth myth get started? The legend entered history when Washington Irving published his three-volume History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828). Irving, best known for “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle,” used his fiction-writing skills to fabricate a supposed confrontation that Columbus had with churchmen who maintained that the Bible taught that the earth was flat. No such encounter ever took place. Samuel Eliot Morison, a noted Columbus biographer, describes the story by Irving as “misleading and mischievous nonsense, . . . one of the most popular Columbian myths.”
Irving’s fictionalized account of Columbus describes him as being “assailed with citations from the Bible and the Testament: the book of Genesis, the psalms of David, the orations of the Prophets, the epistles of the apostles, and the gospels of the Evangelists. To these were added expositions of various saints and reverend Commentators. . . . Such are specimens of the errors and prejudices, the mingled ignorance and erudition, and the pedantic bigotry, with which Columbus had to contend.” There is only one problem with Irving’s account: “It is fabrication, and it is largely upon this fabric that the idea of a medieval flat earth was established.”
Attacking the Church
Boorstin asserts that from A.D. 300 to at least 1300, Europe suffered under what he describes as “scholarly amnesia” due to the rise of “Christian faith and dogma [that] suppressed the useful image of the world that had been so slowly, so painfully, and so scrupulously drawn by ancient geographers.” He also claims that the scientific advances made by the Greeks were dismantled by Christians based on an appeal to the Bible. It is actually the Bible, independent of any competing cosmology, which supports the empirical data that the earth is a globe:
Scientific demonstration of the earth’s rotundity was enforced by religion; God made the earth a sphere because that was the most perfect form. In the Old Testament there is a reference to this in Isaiah l.22: “It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth”—“circle” being the translation of the Hebrew khug, sphere.
Of course, not all Christians made appeals to the Bible for their views of the shape of the earth. Actually, the Bible has little to say on the subject. Nothing in the Bible, however, contradicts the empirical data. For example, Bede (673–735), monk of Jarow and “the Father of English history,” maintained “that the earth is a globe that can be called a perfect sphere because the surface irregularities of mountains and valleys are so small in comparison to its vast size.” He specifies that the “earth is ‘round’ not in the sense of ‘circular’ but in the sense of a ball.”
Deep and Wide
The debate in Columbus’s day was not over whether the earth was flat or round. “The issue was the width of the ocean; and therein the opposition was right.” Columbus had underestimated the circumference of the earth and the width of the ocean by a significant number of miles. “In fact, the distance Columbus was planning to cover [based on accurate maps] was 10,600 miles by air.” Providentially for Columbus and his edgy crew, the Americas stood in his way.
Even considering his mistaken conclusions about measurements, “Columbus always rates the highest accolades from scholars when it comes to seamanship. He was, without question, the finest sailor of his time.” Virtually every student of Columbus accepts the opinion of Bartolome de Las Casas (1484–1566), who wrote in his Historia de las Indias, that “Christopher Columbus surpassed all of his contemporaries in the art of navigation.”
The Columbus myth is another example of historical revisionism, the attempt by secularists to cast the Church in a negative light. Liberal historians relish the fact that schoolchildren all over the country are being taught that Christians are ignorant, flat-earth kooks who will not listen to reason and science. When the facts of history are accurately surveyed, however, we discover true science never conflicts with the Bible. Scientific misinformation is never promoted through an accurate understanding of the Bible. Instead, the manipulation of truth always occurs outside the biblical worldview.
Gary DeMar is the author of countless essays, news articles, and more than 27 book titles. He also hosts The Gary DeMar Show and History Unwrapped—both broadcasted and podcasted. Gary has lived in the Atlanta area since 1979 with his wife, Carol. They have two married sons and are enjoying being grandparents to their grandson. Gary and Carol are members of Midway Presbyterian Church (PCA).
Columbus Day Activites
I expect by now your school year is up and running pretty smoothly. Most of us have settled into a routine and have found what works and what doesn’t. It might be a good time to throw in some extras to keep things from becoming too predictable. October 12th is Columbus Day—a fun “extra” to study and celebrate. “Columbus Day became an official state holiday in Colorado in 1905, and it became a federal holiday in 1970. People have ritually remembered Columbus beginning at least in the Colonial period. In 1792, New York City and other eastern U.S. cities celebrated the 300th anniversary of his landing in the New World. In 1892, President Benjamin Harrison called upon the people of the United States to celebrate Columbus Day on the 400th anniversary of the event. During the 400-year anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used Columbus Day rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These patriotic rituals were framed around themes such as support for war, citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and celebrating social progress” (from wikipedia.com).
If your children are younger, surprise them by waking them up to a special breakfast of your favorite muffins decorated in the shape of a ship. Ice the tops of the muffins in blue icing to look like water. Then use brown icing and form an oval shape for Columbus’s ship, finally add a popsicle stick with white paper cut out in the shape of sails. If your children are a little older, don’t tell them that it is Columbus Day. Let them use the internet to figure out what special day it is. This is a great way for them to learn to research, a skill that it useful for life.
After breakfast tell the children that you are going to spend a few hours today discussing Christopher Columbus, a man who we all have a lot to thank. Consider going to the library, or you might want to spend some time on the internet with your children researching his life. We have included a small booklet that you might want to make with your children. Click here to download the Columbus Poem Booklet.
Have fun and enjoy this special day as you celebrate the life of Christopher Columbus!
Win a Free Old Testamant and Ancient Egypt Self-Paced Course
We are so exicited with the feedback from our first Self-Paced Course, which was first available last month. The Old Testamanent and Ancient Egypt Course for 2nd - 6th grade students has become more than we had even hoped. If you place a book order with us during the month of October, your name will be entered to win a free course. You may begin the course any time before 9/30/10 and will have 12 months to complete it. If you win and cannot use the course for any reason, you may transfer it to a friend.
If you are not sure what we are talking about or want to learn more, go to www.veritaspress.com then click on the sphinx.
Q. Do you have any recommendations for younger children—say 3 or 4 years old—while homeschooling older ones?
A. Having toddlers at home while you teach older children has its challenges, but it can be done successfully. All it takes is a little bit of planning ahead and a whole lot of patience. One thing that many homeschool mothers have found to be successful is a “school” chest or shelf for the toddlers which they may play with only during school time. This shelf should be filled with educational toys that are usable without supervision, such as building toys, puzzles, magnetic matching games, etc. We don’t offer such items in our catalog, but here are two web sites that have toys and games useful for this: Discovery Toys and Growing Tree Toys. Also make the most of nap time. Save your most difficult subjects like math and reading to teach while your toddler is down for a nap. Also realize these are times to be cherished; before you know it, they will be gone.
Q. I see a book in your catalog under seventh grade composition titled Classical Rhetoric through Structure and Style. Isn't seventh grade considered the logic or dialectic stage? Are these younger students able to benefit from a rhetoric book?
A. This really is not a rhetoric book in the same sense that we use the term to teach the discipline of rhetoric. This teaches the student to compose essays and arguments based on the Progymnasmata, the most successful and enduring collection of rhetorical exercises in the Western tradition. This approach to composition emphasizes the classical method of building up the student’s reasoning and articulation skills through a series of interrelated, rhetorical exercises. It fits perfectly at this time in the student’s development.
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Christmas Writing Contest
We would like a student to provide the Feature Article for our December issue of epistula. The title of the article is to be Christmas Was Different that Year. Submissions must be 800 - 1,200 words. Authors must include their name, age, address, and telephone number. The author must be in high school or younger. Submissions must be submitted electronically to firstname.lastname@example.org by 5:00 PM EST November 12, 2009. The winner will also receive a $100 gift certificate.
Columbus Day Coloring Contest
In celebration of Columbus Day we are holding a coloring contest. A $50 gift certificate from Veritas Press will be given to the family who sends us the picture we judge best in each age group. There will be winners in each of three age categories: 3 to 5, 6 to 9, and 10 to12. Submissions must arrive at Veritas Press, 1829 William Penn Way, Lancaster, PA 17601 by 5:00 PM EST October 26, 2009. Click here to download the picture.
Summer Reading Contest Winners
You should have already gotten word on the Summer Reading Contest winners in an email we sent last month. This announcement is just further reminder that all gift certificates for winners and participants must be used by December 31, 2009. We were so thrilled with all who participated! Our three winners are
1st Place $150 Madison Curry
2nd Place $100 Avary Dwyer
3rd Place $70 Skyler Harman
Summer Photo Contest Winners
We had many unbelievable submissions for our 2009 Summer Photo Contest. Three winners were selected by our entire office staff. Six more earned an Honorable Mention. Veritas Press gift certificates were issued as follows:
1st Place $100 Ben Kawecki
2nd Place $50 Abby Farran
3rd Place $25 Kaylie Brown
Click here to see all the submissions, including the winners and those earning honorable mention.
New College Franklin Prospective Student/Parent Weekend & King’s Meadow Study Center 5th Annual Film & Worldview Conference
You are invited to visit the college, attend classes, meet students and faculty, hear more about the philosophy and purpose of the college, as well as enjoy the King’s Meadow Study Center Fifth Annual Film and Worldview conference. All will happen October 30-31, 2009 in beautiful downtown Franklin, Tennessee. More information can be gleaned from www.kingsmeadow.com or contact them at email@example.com or (615) 594-8818.
Veritas Press Scholars Academy Diploma Program
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Howard Benjamin Grose, ed., Our Wonder World, 11 vols. (Chicago: George L. Shuman & Co.,  1918), 1:1, 5.
America Past and Present (Scott Foresman, 1983), 98. Quoted in Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth, 3.
We the People (Heath, 1982), 28–29. Quoted in Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth, 3.
Jeffrey Burton Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians (New York: Praeger, 1991), 4. See Daniel J. Boorstin, The Discoverers: A History of Man’s Search to Know His World and Himself (New York: Random House, 1983), chaps. 11B14.
John William Draper, History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1875), 159.
Draper, History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 160.
Andrew D. White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (New York: George Braziller,  1955), 108.
Zvi Dor-Ner, Columbus and the Age of Discovery (New York: William Morrow, 1991), 72.
Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus (Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co., 1942), 89.
Quoted in Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth, 53.
Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth, 53.
Boorstin, The Discoverers, 100.
Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), 6.
Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth, 20.
Morison, Admiral of the Sea, 89.
Kenneth C. Davis, Don’t Know Much About History: Everything You Need to Know About American History but Never Learned (New York: Crown Publishers, 1990), 6.
Robert H. Fuson, The Log of Christopher Columbus (Camden, MN: International Marine Publishing Co., 1987), 29.
Quoted in Fuson, The Log of Christopher Columbus, 29.